Internet Marketing. General Concepts of Digital Marketing


A/B testing is a type of marketing research that compares the results of potential updates with the original version of any product.


B2B (Business-to-Business) is a form of economic interaction in which some legal entities act as customers, and other act as contractors. Companies sell their goods or services for other companies, rather than to the end consumer.

B2C (Business-to-Consumer) is a form of economic interaction between companies and the end consumer.

Blog is a site or its section, the main content consists of regular posts.

Bot is a program that automatically performs specified actions and imitates the human behavior.

Brand advocate is a regular user of the services of a brand, who recommends it to friends and actively supports it on social networks.

Brand book is an official internal corporate document of a company that describes the brand concept, its attributes, target audience, company positioning, corporate style guide, etc.

Brand is a set of representations in the minds of consumers that characterize a company, product, service or person.

Brief is a conciliatory questionnaire between the customer and the contractor, which sets out the main obligations and tasks of the future project.


Call To Action (CTA) is a text or graphic element that encourages users to take a targeted action.

Call-tracking is a call tracking technology used to analyze the effectiveness of advertising sources.

Chatbot is a bot that operates inside a messenger.

Clustering is the division of objects of a certain set into subsets (clusters) based on their similarity.

Competitiveness is a set of quality and cost characteristics of a product that provides it with an advantage in the market over competitive offers.

Competitor analysis is the process of studying the activities of competitors to identify their strengths and weaknesses.

Content is the information content of the site (texts, graphics, audio, video information, etc.).

Content marketing is a marketing tool for creating and distributing relevant content to attract the target audience.

Content plan is a posting schedule for a website, blog, email newsletters, and groups on social network.

Conversion funnel is the user’s journey from the first contact with the product to the completion of the transaction.

Copywriter is a specialist who creates text content.

Copywriting is the process of creating unique customized text content.

CRM is Customer Relationship Management software that manages the relationship between the customers and your employees and helps optimize the work of the sales department and internal processes in the company, which ultimately leads to increased profits.

Crowd marketing is the process of attracting the target audience by posting recommendation comments on forums.


Digital marketing is a field of marketing that involves the use of digital channels and technologies throughout the whole interaction with consumers.

Digital strategy is a marketing plan to achieve business goals via digital tools.


E-commerce is a sphere of the digital economy, which includes financial and commercial transactions made via electronic means of communication.


Image advertising is advertising aimed at creating a favorable image of a company, product, service or person in the minds of the target audience.

Impulse purchase is a spontaneous decision to buy made directly at the point of sale.

Internet marketing is a set of online activities aimed at achieving the marketing goals of a business: increasing sales, brand awareness, etc.

Internet project is a project aimed at creating various information systems on the Internet based on web technologies.


KPI is Key Performance Indicators that define the company’s strategic goals.


Landing page is the page of the site the user goes to from the advertisement.

Lead generation is the process of attracting new leads and collecting their contact information.

Lead is a potential customer who has shown interest in a product.

Lead magnet is a free offer that a potential customer can receive in exchange for their contact information.


Margin is the difference between price and cost.

Market segment is a group of buyers with similar needs, desires, and capabilities.

Marketing is a set of processes aimed at creating, promoting, and providing a product to, as well as managing relationships with customers.

Marketing mix is ​​a system, a set of tactical marketing tools that help to implement a company’s marketing strategy. The classic marketing mix covers activities on four components of tactical activity: product, price, point of sale, and promotion.

Media plan is a document that contains detailed information about upcoming marketing activities, such as launch dates, channels, budget, expected result, etc.


Native (natural) advertising is a format of an advertising message about a product, service or brand in the form of useful, interesting content for users.

Newsbreak is a high-profile, interesting event that may be of interest to the public and media.


Online advertising is a variety of advertisements that are placed by advertisers on the Internet.

Online campaign is an advertising campaign of a product on the Internet using Internet promotion tools.

Outsourcing is the business practice of subcontracting a third party to perform some tasks and processes.


Payback is an indicator of the efficiency of economic activity, calculated as the ratio of costs incurred and the results obtained.a company by creating a favorable brand image.


Rebranding is a comprehensive update of an existing brand or its components (philosophy, positioning, corporate identity, strategy, values).

Reference is pictures, visual images on the basis of which a new product will be made.

Relevance is the degree to which the information received corresponds to the user’s request.

Relevant page is the page that most closely matches the user’s query.

Rewriting is the process of creating unique text content by rewriting the existing one.

ROI is return of investments. Calculated by formula: ROI = (profit – investment) / investment.

ROMI is return of marketing investments. Calculated by formula: ROI = (profit – marketing investment) / marketing investment.


Sales funnel is the process the potential customers go through on the way to purchase.

Seasonality is the periodic fluctuations in demand for a product that predictably repeat each year.

Segmentation is the process of dividing the market into groups, based on many criteria and factors.

Snippet is an information block containing a fragment of the text of a website page that is displayed next to the link in the search results.

Spam filter is a program that automatically filters incoming emails from spam.

Spam is the mass advertising mailing without the consent of the recipients.


Target audience is a group of people with similar needs and interests that a company can satisfy by selling its products.

Terms of Reference is a technical document containing a set of requirements for the project and approved by both the customer and the project executor.


Unique selling proposition (USP) is the characteristics of a product that make it stand out from the competitors.


Viral marketing is all advertising distribution methods aimed at making the target audience share the posted brand information.

Virality is a special indicator that characterizes the speed of distribution of content among users.


Website monetization is the process of making a profit from placing advertising content or offers from other companies on your website that correspond to the theme of the resource.

Web analytics. Analytical services, performance metrics


Account is a user account that stores his/her personal data.

Attribution model is a rule or set of rules that determines how the value of a conversion is distributed among the touchpoints in a conversion path.


Bounce rate is the percentage of sessions when the user immediately left the site without making any interactions.

Browsing depth is the number of pages viewed per session by the user.


Channel is the source through which the user got to your site.

Click map is a tool to measure and display the number of clicks on elements on a specific site.

Conversion rate is the ratio of targeted actions to the total number of site visitors.

Cross-domain tracking is a feature that allows a user’s movement between multiple sites to be recorded as a single session.


Direct traffic is clicks to the site. Direct traffic is counted when users go to a site by typing the site’s address in the address bar or from bookmarks in the browser.


Google Analytics is a free web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic.

Google Analytics segment is Google Analytics data that meets certain criteria.

Google Optimize is a  website interface testing service.

Google tag manager is a tag management system that makes it easy to manage JavaScript and HTML tags (code snippets) on a website or mobile app.


Hit is a request for a file from a web server.


Impressions are number of times your ads were shown.


Micro goals are intermediate actions on the way to the main goal.

Multi-channel funnels are a group of reports on traffic sources used to trace the entire path of the target user from the first touch to the conversion.


Pages per session is the average number of pages that users visit in a single session.

PR (Public Relations) is a set of activities aimed at creating and maintaining public interest in 


Reach is the number of users who saw the ad at least once.


Search traffic is the traffic to your website from search engines.

Session is a sequence of user interactions with the site for a certain period of time.

Site audit is a general analysis of the resource, necessary to find technical problems in its operation, improve the characteristics of the site for search engines and users.

Summary is the visualization of the main indicators in a specialized interface of web analytics systems.


Target action is user actions that are significant for the business.

Tracking code is a program code that is installed on a website to collect statistics about its visitors.

Tracking ID is a UA-000000-2-like string. It is a required element of the tracking code that Google Analytics uses to determine which account and property to send data to.

Traffic is the information about the number of users who visited the site for a certain period of time.

Traffic Source is the origin through which people found your site. 


Unique pageview is the number of sessions during which users opened a particular page.

UTM code is a specialized parameter in the URL that helps you get detailed information about each traffic source.


Views is the total number of downloaded pages.

Visitors are users who visited the site for a certain period of time.


Web analytics is the process of tracking, collecting, and measuring statistical data on website traffic, followed by their analysis to optimize the performance of the resource.

Development. Structure and elements of web resources

301 redirect is a redirection of page visitors and search engine bots from one URL to another.

404 page is an HTTP response code about an unsuccessful attempt by the server to find the data according to the request.


AMP (Accelerated Mobile Pages) is an open source accelerated mobile page technology.

Application is a user computer program used to solve specific application tasks of the user.


Back-end is the software and hardware part of the service.

Breadcrumbs are a navigation chain on a website that reflects the path to the current page.

Browser is a special program designed to visit web resources.


Caching is a method of optimizing the performance of an application, in which re-requested content is stored and used to service subsequent requests.

CAPTCHA is an automatically generated test used to determine whether a user is a human or a computer.

CMS (content management system) is a set of scripts for creating, editing, and managing website content.

Cookies are small text files that are stored on computers and contain information about the user’s previous actions on websites.


Favicon is a site logo, displayed in front of the page name in the browser tab.

Footer is a cross-cutting structural element of the site, located at the bottom of the pages.

Front-end is the client side of the user interface to the software and hardware part of the service.


Header is a cross-cutting structural element of the site, located at the top of the pages.

Hosting is a service that provides resources for hosting information on a server that constantly has access to the network.

HTML is the code that is used to structure and display a web page and its content.

HTTPS (SSL certificate) is a set of rules that a browser and a server use to exchange information securely.

Hyperlink is a part of a hypertext document that is required to go to another address located on the same or another site.

Hypertext is a system of pages with text that is connected by links.


Landing is a one-page site aimed at the completion of a target action by the user.

Landing Page is a one-page site optimized for conversion. Landing informs the consumer about the product, its benefits and encourages them to take target action.


Open Cart is a CMS focused on creating online stores.

Pagination pages are serial numbering of pages, which are mainly placed at the top or bottom of the site pages.


Responsive design is the design of web pages that ensures the correct display of a web resource on any device connected to the network and adapts to the specified parameters of the browser window.


Scope is such an area of ​​the program, within which a connection is established between some variable and its identifier (name), by which the value of this variable can be obtained.

Scraper site is an exact copy of the data of one server on another. Most often, scraper sites are used to provide multiple sources of the same information.

Server is a service device in automatic information processing systems.

Site header is the upper visually highlighted part of the web page, located in Above the fold and indicating the beginning of the page. This part of the page, depending on the subject, often contains sections of the site, menu, logo, contact information, graphics or CTA.

Stub is a separate page that remains the only one operating when technical work is underway, various kinds of network failures occur, the project is upgraded or moved to a third-party server.

Subscription form is a functional block that is placed on any page of the site to collect personal data of visitors.


Usability is the ability of a product to be understood, learned, used and attractive to the user in given conditions.


Web design is design and development of web interfaces and web projects for various sites or applications.

Web interface is a set of tools used to interact with a website through a browser.

Web page layout is the creation of a web page using html code that places web page elements (text, images, etc.) in a browser window, according to a previously created site design layout.

Website is one or more web pages that are united by a common theme and are linked to each other with links.

Widget is a compact application embedded in a web page or displayed on the desktop. It can be a button, banner, search bar, text block, etc.

SEO. Optimization indicators, basic terms


Affiliates are Internet resources that are actively promoted on the network for the same requests and, as a rule, belong to one company.

Anchor is the text of a hyperlink or part of a link between the opening and closing tags. Anchor reflects the essence of the content that is located on the specified link.


Behavioral ranking factors are a set of user actions on the site and in search results that are considered when ranking sites.

Brand queries are search queries containing the name of a company or brand.


Canonical tag is a canonical URL that tells the search engine which link to index and give it more weight among duplicates on the same resource.

Conversion query is a search query showing the highest percentage of conversion.


Dead links are hyperlinks leading to a non-existent site, web page or a separate file (image, media file, etc.).

Description is a tag designed to create a brief description of the html page.

Donor is a conditional name for a site-platform, which hosts advertisements of other sites (acceptors).

Duplicate pages are separate pages of the site, the content of which completely or partially coincides.


External link is a link located on a specific site that leads to a page of another resource. Required for automatic addition to the search engine index.

External optimization is the building of a reference mass to a promoted resource from other sources.


Geo-dependent query is a search query for which the results are different for users from different regions.

Geo-independent query is a search query, the issue of which should not be tied to a region.

Google Search Console is a free service that helps to get information about how your site appears in Google search results, optimize content, and troubleshoot potential issues.


H1-H6 headings are headings that show the relative importance of the block after the heading depending on the h1, h2, h3, etc, headings. The h1 heading is an important element for the SEO of the site on the page after the heading tag.

High-frequency query is a search query that users make over 1000 times a month.


Index is a special database that contains information collected by search robots from website pages.

Indexing is the crawling of a site by search engine robots in order to add it to the database.

Information query is a search query to get any information about a product without the intention of making a purchase.

Interlinking is the process of hyperlinking different sites and pages of the same site to each other.

Internal linking is putting links from one page on the site to some others within the same resource.

Internal optimization is an activity aimed at changing the code and content of the resource pages in accordance with the rules and requirements of search engines.


Junk queries are artificially generated, with typos and errors, incomplete search queries.


Keywords are a word or, most often, a small phrase that describes the topic of a page as fully and accurately as possible; these are search queries that users use in a search engine to find information of interest to them.

Keywords tag  is a tag that includes search queries for search engine optimization of the web page.


Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) is a search engine algorithm for analyzing web pages by both keywords/phrases on the page and their synonyms, as well as words that are thematically related to the query.

Link mass is the number and quality of external links that lead to a specific site.

Link profile is a collection of all links that lead to a website and its individual pages.

Low-frequency query is a search query that users make up to 100 times a month.


Marker queries are queries that clearly match the promoted page. Most often these are the names of sections, categories, headings, etc.

Medium-frequency query is a search query that users make up to 1000 times a month.

Meta tags are HTML tags that provide additional information about a website page.

Micro markup is the markup of data on a page and on a website that is used to better recognize content by a search bot.


Navigation query is a search query that users make to navigate to a specific site. Contain the name of the site or company.

Nofollow link is a hyperlink with the rel attribute set to “nofollow” that does not pass a citation index.

Noindex tag is a tag used to control the crawler’s indexing function.

Non-targeted query is a search query that leads to, but does not correspond to the subject of the site.


Organic results are that part of the search engine results that is not advertising, but natural, that is, it is displayed by the search engine in accordance with the relevance of the content to the user’s request.


Parser is a program that collects content from a specific service or site.

Parsing is the process of collecting and then processing and analyzing data.

Position is a specific place of a web resource for a key query in the search engine results.


Query frequency is the number of hits by users for a specific phrase in a certain period of time

Quick links are additional links in the search results to the main internal pages of the


Ranking is the process of evaluating a website page and determining its place in the search results for a given user request.

Redirect is a server feature that sends the client and search engine from one URL to another.

Robots.txt is a text file that contains certain instructions for search engine robots.


Satellite is an auxiliary site that assists in promoting the main site, a specific company or product (service).

Search engine is a computer system designed specifically to search for information on the Internet.

Search engine optimization is a set of measures aimed at promoting the position of the site in the results of search engines for relevant queries in relation to the pages of the site.

Search query is a word or phrase that a user enters into a search box to obtain relevant information.

Search suggestions are phrases that appear as an auto-complete list as soon as the user starts typing a search phrase in the search box.

Semantic core is a set of search words that characterize the type of activity of the site, goods or services.

Semantics is a set of key phrases to attract the target audience through search engines.

SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is a comprehensive development and website promotion for its release on the first positions in search engines results paper (SERPs) by selected queries.

SEO metrics is an assessment of the effectiveness of search engine optimization.

SERM (Search engine reputation management) is a series of activities aimed at creating a favorable image of a company on the Internet.

Site map (sitemap.xml) is a site page in html or xml file format, which displays links to all important pages of the site.

Site trust is the level of trust a site has on the part of search engines, which affects the position of the site in search results.

Site visibility is the share of impressions of the site in given search engines for given keywords; it shows the percentage of users entering a certain query in the search who will see the site.

Sitemap.xml is a special file containing information about the pages of the site being indexed.

Snippet is a small information block that describes a document found by a query in the search engine results.

Spam rate (text spam, reoptimization, overspam) is the ratio of frequently repeated words (keywords) to the total amount of text on the page.


Text ranking factors are the parameters of the texts on the site, based on the analysis of which, search engines determine the degree the page matches the key query and rank it in the search results.

Title is the title of the page in the browser, which is displayed in the search engine results.

Transactional query is a search query that expresses the user’s desire to make a purchase.

Contextual advertising. Advertising systems, performance indicators


Ad Impressions is the number of ad impressions or the total volume of advertising materials on a web resource.

Adsense is a contextual advertising service from Google. The program automatically places text and image ads on websites that are appropriate for the context.

Advertising campaign on the Internet is a system of actions and events that promote a certain service or product to the market.

Advertising platform is a website or page that contains an advertisement for goods or services.

Adwords (Google Ads) is a contextual, mainly search advertising service from Google, which provides a user-friendly interface and many tools for creating effective advertising messages.

Audience targeting is an Internet advertising mechanism that shows an advertising message not to the entire audience represented in the Internet space but only to that part of it that meets the specified criteria and whose data is formed into a specific audience segment and stored in DMP.

Banner advertising is a method of promoting goods, services or brands when the advertiser places graphic objects of an advertising nature on third-party sites.

Banner blindness is a phenomenon when website visitors ignore banners and other advertising elements.

Banner is the information carrier in banner advertising, that is, a graphic image of an advertising nature that contains animated elements and is a hyperlink to a specific web page.

Bid is the amount that an advertiser is willing to pay for showing ads in certain positions in online advertising systems.


Campaign is ads or ad groups along with keywords and bids.

Contextual advertising auction is an advertising display tool that determines the positions of ads.

Contextual advertising is a type of Internet advertising when an advertisement is shown in accordance with the content, selected audience, place, time or other context of Internet pages.

Contextual advertising is an ad that is shown based on the content of the page or query entered in the search engine.

Contextual targeting is the practice of displaying ads based on the content of a website. It helps select relevant sites on the Display Network for your ads based on content, keywords, and other criteria.

CPA (Cost per Action) is a payment model for online advertising when only certain actions of users on the advertiser’s website are paid.

CPC (Cost per Click) is the cost per click, the amount that the advertiser pays to the contextual system for a click on an ad made by a user.

CPL (Cost per Lead) is one of the performance parameters of contextual advertising, which characterizes the cost of attracting one user who left his contacts or contacted the advertiser in another convenient way.

CPM (Cost per Millennium) is an advertising payment model when the cost is set for 1000 impressions of an ad block, i.e. showing the advertiser’s banner to one thousand visitors.

CPO (Cost per Order) is the cost of a confirmed order placed by a user on a website.

CPS (PPS) Cost-per-Sale or Pay-per-Sale is a payment option for online advertising, in which when the advertiser pays for purchases made by users attracted to the site.

CPV (Cost Per Visitor) is a method of paying for advertisements when advertiser only pays when the person who sees the ad, be it contextual, display or contextual, goes to the advertiser’s website.

CR (click rate) is the click-through rate of ads.

CTA (Call to action) is a graphic element that motivates and encourages website visitors to take a specific action, for example buy, download, subscribe to a newsletter, etc.

CTR (click-through rate) is one of the main indicators in Internet marketing and contextual advertising. It shows the ratio of the number of clicks on an ad to the number of impressions. CTR is also called click-through rate.


Data feed is a document that stores detailed information about all product items on a website.

Display advertising is any advertising message that interacts with the user through image, sound, video, text, or all four elements.

Dynamic search ads (DSA) are advertisements that are generated automatically based on the system’s comparison of the user’s search query and the content on the site.


eCPM (effective cost per mille) is a metric to measure the effectiveness of app publisher ad monetization.


Geolocation advertising is a method of placing targeted advertising based on the user’s exact geographic location. At a basic level, it is a record of the country and city of residence.

Geotargeting is, in web development and Internet marketing, a method of issuing content to a visitor that matches his geographic location.

Google Ads Display Network is all ad placements outside of search results. It is a huge network of partner sites that host contextual advertising blocks.

Google Ads is a contextual, mainly search advertising service from Google, which provides a user-friendly interface and many tools for creating effective advertising messages.


Keyword is a word or phrase that describes the content of a website page.


Lightbox is a format of display ads that expand to full screen when you click or hover over them.

Look-alike is targeting when advertising materials are shown to those users who, in terms of behavioral characteristics, are similar to the current audience of the site.


Mobile advertising is ads that are specifically designed and customized to appear on mobile devices.

Moderation (contextual advertising) is a check of advertising materials, ads, pictures, quick links, contact information before publication.


Negative keywords are a set of words that, along with keywords, are specified in the contextual advertising campaign settings. Negative keywords are specified in order not to show a contextual ad for these queries.


Real cost per click is the amount that an advertiser pays for a click on his ad from the search results or another site.

Remarketing is a feature used to target your Display Network campaign to users who have previously visited your site.

Remarketing list (remarketing audience) is a data store where information about site visitors or app users is entered, collected using code snippets that are added to a site or app.

Responsive Search Ads is a new beta version in Google Ads. This format helps automatically compose ads from given elements, considering the surrounding content.


Search advertising is a special case of contextual advertising used in search engines. A distinctive feature is that the choice of displayed advertising messages is determined based on the user’s search query.

Search CTR is a ratio that indicates how often users click on an ad after viewing it.

Stop words are words that do not carry a semantic load, mainly service parts of speech (pronouns, conjunctions, interjections) and punctuation marks.


Targeting is an advertising mechanism used to select from the entire existing audience only that part that meets the specified criteria, and show ads to it.

SMM. Social media marketing


Autoposting is automatic transmission of messages to websites, blogs, microblogs, social networks, etc.


Crossposting is automatic, semi-automatic or manual posting or sending of the same message, article, link or topic to email addresses, forums, blogs, or other forms of websites or public correspondence, including online communication.


ER, Egagement Rate is a metric for evaluating the effectiveness of the content policy and communication on the site.


Follower is a subscriber in social networks.

Following is an action aimed at increasing the number of subscriptions to accounts and corporate communities in social networks.


Hashtag is a keyword or several words of a message, a tag used in microblogs and social networks that makes it easier to find messages by topic or content and begins with a pound sign.


Mass following is a direction of Internet marketing related to promotion in social networks. The method consists in mass establishing connections with other users of the social network in order to get a response.

Mass liking is the automatic process of liking posts/publications or comments of other users.


Opinion leaders are people whose opinion influences the opinion of the audience.


Pixel is a code that collects information about site users and tracks their actions.

Placement is a place to display ads.

Post is a publication created when setting up targeted advertising.


Smart feed is a program that selects news depending on the interests of the audience. This algorithm analyzes the reaction of users to the proposed content and creates an individual news collection.

SMM (Social Media Marketing) is a type of Internet marketing that involves promotion in social networks.

SMM involvement rate is an indicator of the level of audience involvement in the company’s activities, measured as a percentage of actions to coverage.

SMO (Social Media Optimization) is the optimization of a resource for social media (networks, blogs, forums, etc.). It is a set of technical measures aimed at transforming the content of the site so that it can be used as easily as possible in online communities.

Social media is a collection of all Internet platforms that, based on online technologies, provide users with the opportunity to establish communication with each other and produce user-generated content.

Social networks are online platforms that are used for communication, dating, creating social relationships between people who have similar interests or offline connections, as well as for entertainment and work.


Targeted advertising is a method of online advertising that uses methods and settings to search for a target audience in accordance with the given parameters of people who may be interested in the advertised product or service.

Tweet is a short message, status, visible to all “friends” of the user in the social network.

Mass mailings. Email Marketing


CTOR is a shorthand for click-to-open rate that compares the number of people who opened an email to the number of those who clicked.


Delivery Rate is the percentage of delivered emails.


Email marketing is the promotion of company products and services through emails.

Email distribution is an automated sending of letters by e-mail to a specific group of recipients.

ESP (Email Service Provider) is a service for sending email newsletters.


OR (Open Rate) is the percentage of open emails in email marketing.